Dietary Intake of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) and Mortality among Individuals with Colorectal Cancer.
Mao Z., Aglago EK., Zhao Z., Schalkwijk C., Jiao L., Freisling H., Weiderpass E., Hughes DJ., Eriksen AK., Tjønneland A., Severi G., Rothwell J., Boutron-Ruault M-C., Katzke V., Kaaks R., Schulze MB., Birukov A., Krogh V., Panico S., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Vermeulen RCH., Gram IT., Skeie G., Sandanger TM., Quirós JR., Crous-Bou M., Sánchez M-J., Amiano P., Chirlaque M-D., Barricarte Gurrea A., Manjer J., Johansson I., Perez-Cornago A., Jenab M., Fedirko V.
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may promote oxidative stress and inflammation and have been linked to multiple chronic diseases, including cancer. However, the association of AGEs with mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has not been previously investigated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for associations between dietary intake of AGEs with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality among 5801 participant cases diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study between 1993 and 2013. Dietary intakes of AGEs were estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires, linked to an AGE database, that accounted for food preparation and processing. During a median of 58 months of follow-up, 2421 cases died (1841 from CRC). Individually or combined, dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality among cases. However, there was a suggestion for a positive association between AGEs and all-cause or CRC-specific mortality among CRC cases without type II diabetes (all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.05) and CRC cases with the longest follow-up between recruitment and cancer diagnosis (CRC-specific, Pinteraction = 0.003; all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study suggests that pre-diagnostic dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC patients. Further investigations using biomarkers of AGEs and stratifying by sex, diabetes status, and timing of exposure to AGEs are warranted.