Risk of dementia in patients hospitalised with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England, 1998-2011: a retrospective national record linkage cohort study.
Smolina K., Wotton CJ., Goldacre MJ.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of subsequent dementia. Our objective was to determine whether a similar risk of subsequent dementia is associated with type 1 diabetes in a large defined population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined national administrative record-linked statistical data on hospital care and mortality in England, 1998-2011. Cohorts of people admitted to hospital when aged 30 or over were constructed: 343,062 people with type 1 diabetes; 1,855,141 people with type 2 diabetes; and a reference cohort. Results were expressed as rate ratios (RR) comparing each diabetes cohort with the control cohort. RESULTS: The overall RR for dementia in people admitted to hospital with type 1 diabetes was 1.65 (95% CI 1.61, 1.68), and for people admitted to hospital with type 2 diabetes was 1.37 (1.35, 1.38). Young age at admission for diabetes appeared to confer a greater rate of subsequent dementia; the RR for dementia in people admitted to hospital with type 1 diabetes aged 30-39 years was 7.10 (4.65, 10.6), which reduced to 4.40 (3.55, 5.40) in those aged 40-49 at admission, and further reduced with increasing age to 1.16 (1.11, 1.20) in those aged 80 or over at admission. A similar pattern was seen with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 1 diabetes, as well as type 2 diabetes, may be associated with an elevated risk of subsequent dementia. The risk of dementia varies with age at admission to hospital with diabetes, and appears to be much greater in the young.