Increasing incidence of endometrial carcinoma in a high-risk New Zealand community.
Bigby SM., Tin Tin S., Eva LJ., Shirley P., Dempster-Rivett K., Elwood M.
BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is increasing in incidence, attributed largely to the obesity epidemic. Ethnic differences in New Zealand have long been recognised, with Pacific women bearing the greater burden of disease. We hypothesise that the pooled national incidence rates underestimate the true burden of EC in our high-risk community. AIMS: We aimed to: (1) determine the incidence, trends and outcome of EC in the high-risk community served by our hospital, relative to national data; and (2) examine associated demographic, and clinicopathological features with reference to risk factors, to identify potential clinical and population intervention points. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All area-resident women treated for EC at Middlemore Hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified from records, and clinicopathological data obtained. Incidence and time trend analyses were performed with reference to tumour type, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: The study included 588 women. Pacific, followed by Māori, women had the highest incidence of EC (relative risk = 5.11 and 2.47, respectively, relative to 'Other' women). The incidence increased for all ethnicities (annual percentage change (APC) of 7.3; 95% CI 3.6-11.1), most marked in women aged below 50 years (APC of 12.2; 95% CI 5.2-19.7). This occurred predominantly in Pacific women, who had a high prevalence of potentially reversible risk factors. Disease-specific survival was worse in Pacific, and to a lesser extent, Māori women. CONCLUSIONS: Prompt investigation of symptomatic, high-risk women regardless of age may detect endometrial abnormalities at an early, potentially reversible stage. The prevention and management of identifiable high-risk factors would help mitigate the risk of EC and associated diseases.