Alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan).
Michaud DS., Vrieling A., Jiao L., Mendelsohn JB., Steplowski E., Lynch SM., Wactawski-Wende J., Arslan AA., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Fuchs CS., Gross M., Helzlsouer K., Jacobs EJ., Lacroix A., Petersen G., Zheng W., Allen N., Ammundadottir L., Bergmann MM., Boffetta P., Buring JE., Canzian F., Chanock SJ., Clavel-Chapelon F., Clipp S., Freiberg MS., Michael Gaziano J., Giovannucci EL., Hankinson S., Hartge P., Hoover RN., Allan Hubbell F., Hunter DJ., Hutchinson A., Jacobs K., Kooperberg C., Kraft P., Manjer J., Navarro C., Peeters PHM., Shu X-O., Stevens V., Thomas G., Tjønneland A., Tobias GS., Trichopoulos D., Tumino R., Vineis P., Virtamo J., Wallace R., Wolpin BM., Yu K., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A., Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ.
The literature has consistently reported no association between low to moderate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer; however, a few studies have shown that high levels of intake may increase risk. Most single studies have limited power to detect associations even in the highest alcohol intake categories or to examine associations by alcohol type. We analyzed these associations using 1,530 pancreatic cancer cases and 1,530 controls from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) nested case-control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed no significant overall association between total alcohol (ethanol) intake and pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.86-2.23, for 60 or more g/day vs. >0 to <5 g/day). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed among men consuming 45 or more grams of alcohol from liquor per day (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.02-4.87, compared to 0 g/day of alcohol from liquor, P-trend = 0.12), but not among women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.63-2.87, for 30 or more g/day of alcohol from liquor, compared to none). No associations were noted for wine or beer intake. Overall, no significant increase in risk was observed, but a small effect among heavy drinkers cannot be ruled out.