Determinants of non- response to a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the EPIC-PANACEA study.
May AM., Adema LE., Romaguera D., Vergnaud AC., Agudo A., Ekelund U., Steffen A., Orfanos P., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Mouw T., Rohrmann S., Hermann S., Boeing H., Bergmann MM., Jakobsen MU., Overvad K., Wareham NJ., Gonzalez C., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Key TJ., Spencer EA., Hellstrom V., Manjer J., Hedblad B., Lund E., Braaten T., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault MC., Rodríguez L., Sánchez MJ., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Huerta JM., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Pala V., Norat T., Mattiello A., Tumino R., van der A D., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Riboli E., Peeters PH.
BACKGROUND: This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the European multi-center EPIC-PANACEA study. METHODS: Over 500.000 participants from several centers in ten European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were contacted 2-11 years later to update data on lifestyle and body weight. Length of follow-up as well as the method of approaching differed between the collaborating study centers. Non-responders were compared with responders using multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall response for the second assessment was high (81.6%). Compared to postal surveys, centers where the participants completed the questionnaire by phone attained a higher response. Response was also high in centers with a short follow-up period. Non-response was higher in participants who were male (odds ratio 1.09 (confidence interval 1.07; 1.11), aged under 40 years (1.96 (1.90; 2.02), living alone (1.40 (1.37; 1.43), less educated (1.35 (1.12; 1.19), of poorer health (1.33 (1.27; 1.39), reporting an unhealthy lifestyle and who had either a low (<18.5 kg/m2, 1.16 (1.09; 1.23)) or a high BMI (>25, 1.08 (1.06; 1.10); especially ≥30 kg/m2, 1.26 (1.23; 1.29)). CONCLUSIONS: Cohort studies may enhance cohort maintenance by paying particular attention to the subgroups that are most unlikely to respond and by an active recruitment strategy using telephone interviews.