Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Büchner FL., Boshuizen HC., Agudo A., Gram IT., Dahm CC., Overvad K., Egeberg R., Tjønneland A., Boeing H., Steffen A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Berrino F., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J-M., Rodríguez L., Sánchez M-J., Rasmuson T., Hallmans G., Manjer J., Wirfält E., Engeset D., Skeie G., Katsoulis M., Oikonomou E., Trichopoulou A., Peeters PHM., Khaw K-T., Wareham N., Allen N., Key T., Brennan P., Romieu I., Slimani N., Vergnaud A-C., Xun WW., Vineis P., Riboli E.
Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.