Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
Zamora-Ros R., Luján-Barroso L., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Dik VK., Boeing H., Steffen A., Tjønneland A., Olsen A., Bech BH., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault MC., Racine A., Fagherazzi G., Kuhn T., Katzke V., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Tumino R., Panico S., Vineis P., Grioni S., Palli D., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Huerta JM., Sánchez MJ., Argüelles M., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Nilsson L., Wallner B., Lindkvist B., Wallström P., Peeters PH., Key TJ., Khaw KT., Wareham NJ., Freisling H., Stepien M., Ferrari P., Gunter MJ., Murphy N., Riboli E., González CA.
Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend=0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend=0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend=0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases.