Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70211-6

Type

Journal article

Journal

Lancet Oncol

Publication Date

10/2014

Volume

15

Pages

e484 - e492

Keywords

Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biomarkers, Tumor, Biopsy, Needle, Early Detection of Cancer, Evidence-Based Medicine, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Life Style, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Primary Prevention, Prognosis, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms, Risk Factors, Risk Reduction Behavior