Investigating the possible causal role of coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk and progression using Mendelian randomization analysis.
Taylor AE., Martin RM., Geybels MS., Stanford JL., Shui I., Eeles R., Easton D., Kote-Jarai Z., Amin Al Olama A., Benlloch S., Muir K., Giles GG., Wiklund F., Gronberg H., Haiman CA., Schleutker J., Nordestgaard BG., Travis RC., Neal D., Pashayan N., Khaw KT., Blot W., Thibodeau S., Maier C., Kibel AS., Cybulski C., Cannon-Albright L., Brenner H., Park J., Kaneva R., Batra J., Teixeira MR., Pandha H., PRACTICAL Consortium None., Donovan J., Munafò MR.
Coffee consumption has been shown in some studies to be associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. However, it is unclear if this association is causal or due to confounding or reverse causality. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation analysis to investigate the causal effects of coffee consumption on prostate cancer risk and progression. We used two genetic variants robustly associated with caffeine intake (rs4410790 and rs2472297) as proxies for coffee consumption in a sample of 46,687 men of European ancestry from 25 studies in the PRACTICAL consortium. Associations between genetic variants and prostate cancer case status, stage and grade were assessed by logistic regression and with all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. There was no clear evidence that a genetic risk score combining rs4410790 and rs2472297 was associated with prostate cancer risk (OR per additional coffee increasing allele: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98,1.03) or having high-grade compared to low-grade disease (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.97,1.04). There was some evidence that the genetic risk score was associated with higher odds of having nonlocalised compared to localised stage disease (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06). Amongst men with prostate cancer, there was no clear association between the genetic risk score and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97,1.04) or prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.98,1.08). These results, which should have less bias from confounding than observational estimates, are not consistent with a substantial effect of coffee consumption on reducing prostate cancer incidence or progression.