Dietary patterns associated with hypertension risk among adults in Thailand: 8-year findings from the Thai Cohort Study.
Shi Z., Papier K., Yiengprugsawan V., Kelly M., Seubsman S-A., Sleigh AC.
OBJECTIVE: Dietary intake is a leading risk factor for hypertension. We aimed to assess longitudinal associations between overall dietary patterns and incident hypertension among adults in Thailand. DESIGN: Prospective large Thai Cohort Study (TCS) conducted nationwide from 2005 to 2013. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on usual intake of fourteen food groups. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between dietary patterns and hypertension prevalence and incidence. SETTING: Emerging hypertension and changing diets in Thailand. SUBJECTS: TCS participants who were normotensive at baseline in 2005. RESULTS: Among 36293 participants without hypertension at baseline, 1831 reported incident hypertension (5·1 % incidence) at follow-up. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'Modern' and 'Prudent'. The Modern dietary pattern (high intakes of roasted/smoked foods, instant foods, canned foods, fermented fruits/vegetables, fermented foods, soft drinks, deep-fried foods) was associated with increased incident hypertension (comparing extreme quartiles, OR for incident hypertension=1·51; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·75 in 2013). The Prudent dietary pattern (high intakes of soyabean products, milk, fruits, vegetables) was not associated with incident hypertension in a fully adjusted model. The association between the Modern dietary pattern and hypertension was attenuated by BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Modern dietary pattern was positively associated with hypertension among Thai adults. BMI had a great impact on the relationship between the Modern dietary pattern and incidence of hypertension. Reduction of Modern diets would be expected to prevent and control hypertension. Such a strategy would be worth testing.