Diet and lifestyle in relation to small intestinal cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Ersoy Guller Z., Harewood RN., Weiderpass E., Huybrechts I., Jenab M., Huerta JM., Sánchez M-J., Jakszyn P., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Palli D., Skeie G., Manjer J., Papier K., Tjønneland A., Eriksen AK., Schulze MB., Kaaks R., Katzke V., Bergmann MM., Riboli E., Gunter MJ., Cross AJ.
PURPOSE: The incidence of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is increasing, however, its aetiology remains unclear due to a lack of data from large-scale prospective cohorts. We examined modifiable risk factors in relation to SIC overall and by histological subtype. METHODS: We analysed 450,107 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate univariable and multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During an average of 14.1 years of follow-up, 160 incident SICs (62 carcinoids, 51 adenocarcinomas) were identified. Whilst univariable models revealed a positive association for current versus never smokers and SIC (HR, 95% CI: 1.77, 1.21-2.60), this association attenuated in multivariable models. In energy-adjusted models, there was an inverse association across vegetable intake tertiles for SIC overall (HRT3vsT1, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.32-0.71, p-trend: