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To clarify the role of metabolic factors in endometrial carcinogenesis, we conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), and examined the relation between prediagnostic plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and glucose, the metabolic syndrome (MetS; a cluster of metabolic factors) and endometrial cancer risk. Among pre- and postmenopausal women, 284 women developed endometrial cancer during follow-up. Using risk set sampling, 546 matched control subjects were selected. From conditional logistic regression models, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were inversely associated with risk body mass index (BMI)-adjusted relative risk (RR) for top versus bottom quartile 0.61 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.38-0.97), P(trend) = 0.02). Glucose levels were positively associated with risk (BMI-adjusted RR top versus bottom quartile 1.69 (95% CI 0.99-2.90), P(trend) = 0.03), which appeared stronger among postmenopausal women (BMI-adjusted RR top versus bottom tertile 2.61 (95% CI 1.46-4.66), P(trend) = 0.0006, P(heterogeneity) = 0.13) and never-users of exogenous hormones (P(heterogeneity) = 0.005 for oral contraceptive (OC) use and 0.05 for hormone replacement therapy-use). The associations of HDL-C and glucose with risk were no longer statistically significant after further adjustment for obesity-related hormones. Plasma total cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were not significantly related to overall risk. The presence of MetS was associated with risk (RR 2.12 (95% CI 1.51-2.97)), which increased with the number of MetS factors (P(trend) = 0.02). An increasing number of MetS factors other than waist circumference, however, was marginally significantly associated with risk only in women with waist circumference above the median (P(interaction) = 0.01). None of the associations differed significantly by fasting status. These findings suggest that metabolic abnormalities and obesity may act synergistically to increase endometrial cancer risk.

Original publication

DOI

10.1677/ERC-07-0132

Type

Journal article

Journal

Endocr Relat Cancer

Publication Date

09/2007

Volume

14

Pages

755 - 767

Keywords

Adenocarcinoma, Adult, Blood Glucose, Case-Control Studies, Endometrial Neoplasms, Europe, Female, Humans, Lipids, Lipoproteins, Metabolic Syndrome, Middle Aged, Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors