Investigation of dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study approach in the EPIC and Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII.
Merritt MA., Tzoulaki I., Tworoger SS., De Vivo I., Hankinson SE., Fernandes J., Tsilidis KK., Weiderpass E., Tjønneland A., Petersen KE., Dahm CC., Overvad K., Dossus L., Boutron-Ruault MC., Fagherazzi G., Fortner RT., Kaaks R., Aleksandrova K., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Grioni S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Onland-Moret NC., Peeters PH., Gram IT., Skeie G., Quirós JR., Duell EJ., Sánchez MJ., Salmerón D., Barricarte A., Chamosa S., Ericson U., Sonestedt E., Nilsson LM., Idahl A., Khaw KT., Wareham N., Travis RC., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Patel CJ., Riboli E., Gunter MJ.
Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ≤ 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies.