Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.
Wang M., Beelen R., Stafoggia M., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Andersen ZJ., Hoffmann B., Fischer P., Houthuijs D., Nieuwenhuijsen M., Weinmayr G., Vineis P., Xun WW., Dimakopoulou K., Samoli E., Laatikainen T., Lanki T., Turunen AW., Oftedal B., Schwarze P., Aamodt G., Penell J., De Faire U., Korek M., Leander K., Pershagen G., Pedersen NL., Östenson C-G., Fratiglioni L., Eriksen KT., Sørensen M., Tjønneland A., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Eeftens M., Bots ML., Meliefste K., Krämer U., Heinrich J., Sugiri D., Key T., de Hoogh K., Wolf K., Peters A., Cyrys J., Jaensch A., Concin H., Nagel G., Tsai M-Y., Phuleria H., Ineichen A., Künzli N., Probst-Hensch N., Schaffner E., Vilier A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Declerq C., Ricceri F., Sacerdote C., Marcon A., Galassi C., Migliore E., Ranzi A., Cesaroni G., Badaloni C., Forastiere F., Katsoulis M., Trichopoulou A., Keuken M., Jedynska A., Kooter IM., Kukkonen J., Sokhi RS., Brunekreef B., Katsouyanni K., Hoek G.
BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the association of PM composition with cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: We used data from 19 European ongoing cohorts within the framework of the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and TRANSPHORM (Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts--Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter) projects. Residential annual average exposure to elemental constituents within particle matter smaller than 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10) was estimated using Land Use Regression models. Eight elements representing major sources were selected a priori (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc). Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models with a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate combined effect estimates. RESULTS: The total population consisted of 322,291 participants, with 9545 CVD deaths. We found no statistically significant associations between any of the elemental constituents in PM2.5 or PM10 and CVD mortality in the pooled analysis. Most of the hazard ratios (HRs) were close to unity, e.g. for PM10 Fe the combined HR was 0.96 (0.84-1.09). Elevated combined HRs were found for PM2.5 Si (1.17, 95% CI: 0.93-1.47), and S in PM2.5 (1.08, 95% CI: 0.95-1.22) and PM10 (1.09, 95% CI: 0.90-1.32). CONCLUSION: In a joint analysis of 19 European cohorts, we found no statistically significant association between long-term exposure to 8 elemental constituents of particles and total cardiovascular mortality.