Anti-Mullerian hormone and endometrial cancer: a multi-cohort study.
Fortner RT., Schock H., Jung S., Allen NE., Arslan AA., Brinton LA., Egleston BL., Falk RT., Gunter MJ., Helzlsouer KJ., Idahl A., Johnson TS., Kaaks R., Krogh V., Lundin E., Merritt MA., Navarro C., Onland-Moret NC., Palli D., Shu X-O., Sluss PM., Staats PN., Trichopoulou A., Weiderpass E., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A., Zheng W., Dorgan JF.
BACKGROUND: The Mullerian ducts are the embryological precursors of the female reproductive tract, including the uterus; anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has a key role in the regulation of foetal sexual differentiation. Anti-Mullerian hormone inhibits endometrial tumour growth in experimental models by stimulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. To date, there are no prospective epidemiologic data on circulating AMH and endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated this association among women premenopausal at blood collection in a multicohort study including participants from eight studies located in the United States, Europe, and China. We identified 329 endometrial cancer cases and 339 matched controls. Anti-Mullerian hormone concentrations in blood were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across tertiles and for a doubling of AMH concentrations (ORlog2). Subgroup analyses were performed by ages at blood donation and diagnosis, oral contraceptive use, and tumour characteristics. RESULTS: Anti-Mullerian hormone was not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer overall (ORlog2: 1.07 (0.99-1.17)), or with any of the examined subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Although experimental models implicate AMH in endometrial cancer growth inhibition, our findings do not support a role for circulating AMH in the aetiology of endometrial cancer.