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Food systems have been identified as significant contributors to the global environmental emergency. However, there is no universally agreed-upon definition of what constitutes a planetary healthy, sustainable diet. In our study, we investigated the association between the EAT-Lancet reference diet, a diet within the planetary boundaries, and incident cancer, incident major cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Higher adherence to the EAT-Lancet reference diet was associated with lower incident cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]continuous: 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-0.99]) and lower all-cause mortality (HR continuous: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.98-0.99), while mostly null associations were detected for major cardiovascular event risk (HR continuous: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98-1.01). Stratified analyses using potentially modifiable risk factors led to similar results. Our findings, in conjunction with the existing literature, support that adoption of the EAT-Lancet reference diet could have a benefit for the prevention of non-communicable diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


One Earth

Publication Date





1726 - 1734


EAT-Lancet, cancer, cardiovascular, diet, incidence, mortality, sustainable