Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
Cust AE., Slimani N., Kaaks R., van Bakel M., Biessy C., Ferrari P., Laville M., Tjønneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Lajous M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M-C., Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Nöthlings U., Boeing H., Palli D., Sieri S., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Skeie G., Engeset D., Gram IT., Quirós JR., Jakszyn P., Sánchez MJ., Larrañaga N., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Wirfält E., Berglund G., Lundin E., Hallmans G., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Du H., Peeters PHM., Bingham S., Khaw K-T., Allen NE., Key TJ., Jenab M., Riboli E.
The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates p(heterogeneity) = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy.