Cervical carcinoma and reproductive factors: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 16,563 women with cervical carcinoma and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies.
International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer None.
The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has combined individual data on 11,161 women with invasive carcinoma, 5,402 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)3/carcinoma in situ and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cervical carcinoma in relation to number of full-term pregnancies, and age at first full-term pregnancy, were calculated conditioning by study, age, lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first sexual intercourse. Number of full-term pregnancies was associated with a risk of invasive cervical carcinoma. After controlling for age at first full-term pregnancy, the RR for invasive cervical carcinoma among parous women was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.53-2.02) for > or => or =7 full-term pregnancies compared with 1-2. For CIN3/carcinoma in situ, no significant trend was found with increasing number of births after controlling for age at first full-term pregnancy among parous women. Early age at first full-term pregnancy was also associated with risk of both invasive cervical carcinoma and CIN3/carcinoma in situ. After controlling for number of full-term pregnancies, the RR for first full-term pregnancy at age <17 years compared with > or => or =25 years was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42-2.23) for invasive cervical carcinoma, and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.26-2.51) for CIN3/carcinoma in situ. Results were similar in analyses restricted to high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive cases and controls. No relationship was found between cervical HPV positivity and number of full-term pregnancies, or age at first full-term pregnancy among controls. Differences in reproductive habits may have contributed to differences in cervical cancer incidence between developed and developing countries.