Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
Engeset D., Braaten T., Teucher B., Kühn T., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Leenders M., Agudo A., Bergmann MM., Valanou E., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Key TJ., Crowe FL., Overvad K., Sonestedt E., Mattiello A., Peeters PH., Wennberg M., Jansson JH., Boutron-Ruault M-C., Dossus L., Dartois L., Li K., Barricarte A., Ward H., Riboli E., Agnoli C., Huerta JM., Sánchez M-J., Tumino R., Altzibar JM., Vineis P., Masala G., Ferrari P., Muller DC., Johansson M., Luisa Redondo M., Tjønneland A., Olsen A., Olsen KS., Brustad M., Skeie G., Lund E.
Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99% confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046).