Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: a nested case-control study using food diaries.
Dahm CC., Keogh RH., Spencer EA., Greenwood DC., Key TJ., Fentiman IS., Shipley MJ., Brunner EJ., Cade JE., Burley VJ., Mishra G., Stephen AM., Kuh D., White IR., Luben R., Lentjes MA., Khaw KT., Rodwell Bingham SA.
BACKGROUND: Results of epidemiological studies of dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk have not been consistent, possibly because of attenuation of associations due to measurement error in dietary exposure ascertainment. METHODS: To examine the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a prospective case-control study nested within seven UK cohort studies, which included 579 case patients who developed incident colorectal cancer and 1996 matched control subjects. We used standardized dietary data obtained from 4- to 7-day food diaries that were completed by all participants to calculate the odds ratios for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers with the use of conditional logistic regression models that adjusted for relevant covariates. We also calculated odds ratios for colorectal cancer by using dietary data obtained from food-frequency questionnaires that were completed by most participants. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Intakes of absolute fiber and of fiber intake density, ascertained by food diaries, were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risks of colorectal and colon cancers in both age-adjusted models and multivariable models that adjusted for age; anthropomorphic and socioeconomic factors; and dietary intakes of folate, alcohol, and energy. For example, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of colorectal cancer for highest vs the lowest quintile of fiber intake density was 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 0.96). However, no statistically significant association was observed when the same analysis was conducted using dietary data obtained by food-frequency questionnaire (multivariable odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.57 to 1.36). CONCLUSIONS: Intake of dietary fiber is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methodological differences (ie, study design, dietary assessment instruments, definition of fiber) may account for the lack of convincing evidence for the inverse association between fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk in some previous studies.