Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Higher fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainties remain, however, about the associations of fruit consumption with all-cause mortality and mortality from subtypes of CVD and major non-vascular diseases, especially in China. METHODS: In 2004-08, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank Study recruited > 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse localities in China. Fresh fruit consumption was estimated using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire, and mortality data were collected from death registries. Among the 462 342 participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline, 17 894 deaths were recorded during ∼ 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with fruit consumption. RESULTS: At baseline, 28% of participants reported consuming fruit ≥ 4 days/week (regular consumers) and 6% reported never/rarely consuming fruit (non-consumers). Compared with non-consumers, regular consumers had 27% [RR = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.76] lower all-cause mortality, 34% lower CVD mortality (n = 6166; RR = 0.66, 0.61-0.71), 17% lower cancer mortality (n = 6796; RR = 0.83, 0.78-0.89) and 42% lower mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 1119; RR = 0.58, 0.47-0.71). For each of the above, there was an approximately log-linear dose-response relationship with amount consumed. For mortality from site-specific cancers, fruit consumption was inversely associated with digestive tract cancer (n = 2265; RR = 0.72, 0.64-0.81), particularly oesophageal cancer (n = 801; RR = 0.65, 0.50-0.83), but not with cancer of lung or liver. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, higher fresh fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower mortality from several major vascular and non-vascular diseases. Given the current low population level of fruit consumption, substantial health benefits could be gained from increased fruit consumption in China.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Epidemiol

Publication Date





1444 - 1455


China, Fruit, cohort studies, mortality, prospective studies, Adult, Age Distribution, Aged, Biological Specimen Banks, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cause of Death, China, Diet, Female, Fruit, Humans, Linear Models, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Prospective Studies, Sex Distribution