In recent decades, a health-risk transition with changes in diet and lifestyle in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) led to an emergence of chronic diseases. These trends in Southeast Asian LMICs are not well studied. Here, we report on transitional dietary patterns and their socio-demographic predictors in Thai adults. Dietary data in 2015 were from a random sub-sample (N = 1075) of 42,785 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) members who completed all three TCS surveys (2005, 2009, 2013). Principle Component Analysis identified dietary patterns and multivariable linear regression assessed associations (Beta estimates (ß) and confidence intervals (CIs)) between socio-demographic factors and dietary intake pattern scores. Four dietary patterns emerged: Healthy Transitional, Fatty Western, Highly Processed, and Traditional. In women, higher income (≥30,001 Baht/month vs. ≤10,000) and managerial work (vs. office assistant) was associated with lower scores for Traditional (ß = -0.67, 95% CI -1.15, -0.19) and Fatty Western diets (ß = -0.60, 95% CI -1.14, -0.05), respectively. University education associated with lower Highly Processed (ß = -0.57, 95% CI -0.98, -0.17) and higher Traditional diet scores (ß = 0.42, 95% CI 0.03, 0.81). In men and women, urban residence associated with higher Fatty Western and lower Traditional diets. Local policy makers should promote healthy diets, particularly in urban residents, in men, and in low-SEP adults.

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Asian cohort, diet patterns, nutrition transition, principle component analysis, socioeconomic status, urban, Adult, Developing Countries, Diet, Diet, Western, Dietary Fats, Educational Status, Energy Intake, Feeding Behavior, Female, Food Handling, Humans, Linear Models, Male, Principal Component Analysis, Prospective Studies, Residence Characteristics, Socioeconomic Factors, Thailand, Urban Population